Practical Implications of Using a Solid Electrolyte in Batteries with Sodium Anode: A Combined X-ray Tomography and Model-based Study

Herein X-ray tomography of cycled symmetric sodium cells with Na-β-alumina is used to validate the success of a protective layer. X-ray imaging after cell failure reveals that the solid electrolyte unexpectedly broke apart alongside a crack. The crack might have acted as the nucleation site for sodium dendrite growth, which ended in short-circuiting and cell failure.