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20210119_Operando_studies_of_iodine_species_in_an_advanced_oxidative_water_treatment_reactor.pdf (3.46 MB)

Operando Studies of Iodine Species in an Advanced Oxidative Water Treatment Reactor

submitted on 19.01.2021, 22:34 and posted on 21.01.2021, 04:53 by Ahmed Moustafa, Alex Evans, Simmon Hofstetter, Jenny Boutros, Parastoo Pourrezaei, Cheng Zhang, Laura Patterson-Fortin, Charles Laing, Carter Goertzen, Richard Smith, Kenneth R Code, Ning Cheng, Peter E R Blanchard, Nathan Bettman, Raquibul Alam, Kerry McPhedran, Zohreh Fallah, Edward Roberts, Michael Gaultois
We present an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (eAOP) reactor employing expanded graphite, potassium iodide (KI), and electrical current, which demonstrates an exceptionally high rate of inactivation of E. coli (6log reduction in viable cells) at low current density 0.6 mA/cm^2), with low contact time (5 minutes) and low concentration of KI (10 ppm). Operando X-ray fluorescence mapping is used to show the distribution of iodine species in the reactor, and operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the anodic chamber reveals iodine species with higher effective oxidation state than periodate. Operando electrochemical measurements confirm the conditions in the anodic chambers are favourable for the creation of highly oxidized iodine products. The killing efficiency of this new eAOP reactor far exceeds that expected from either traditional iodine-based electrochemical water treatment or advanced oxidation systems alone, a phenomenon that may be associated with the production of highly oxidized iodine species reported here.







Email Address of Submitting Author


University of Liverpool


United Kingdom

ORCID For Submitting Author


Declaration of Conflict of Interest

NB, RA, KM, ZF, and ER received research support from BioLargo Inc., who have a patent on the reactor (US patent 10,654,731 B2). AM, AE, SH, JB, PP, CZ, LPF, CL, RS, and KC are or were employed by BioLargo Inc. KRC is the Chief Science Officer at BioLargo Inc. and RS is the President and Chief Executive Officer of BioLargo Water Inc. MWG received financial compensation as a consultant for BioLargo Inc., and is a shareholder of BioLargo Inc. NC and PB have no competing interests.