These are preliminary reports that have not been peer-reviewed. They should not be regarded as conclusive, guide clinical practice/health-related behavior, or be reported in news media as established information. For more information, please see our FAQs.
Manuscript File.pdf (1.44 MB)

Nucleation and Structural Identification in Gold Particles of High Aspect Ratios Developed through Mechanistic Approach

revised on 08.07.2020 and posted on 09.07.2020 by Mubarak Ali, I-Nan Lin

A structural identification in different geometrical shapes of gold particles is presented here. Nucleation mechanisms of particles having geometrical shapes are discussed here, which have never been reported before. Dimensional regularity of particles in geometrical shapes incites a new insight. At electronically flat solution surface, different zones have been found dealing with the developing tiny-shaped particles in less elongation of atoms and more elongation of atoms. Tiny-shaped particles in less elongation of atoms nucleate particles of one-dimensional (1D) shapes due to developing in a zone consisting of regions rearward to north-pole at solution surface. Tiny-shaped particles in more elongation of atoms nucleate multi-dimensional (MD) shapes due to developing in a zone consisting of east-west regions at solution surface. To assemble at a common point forming at the centre of concave meniscus, structures of smooth elements at electronically decreasing level solution surface experience force in immersing format. A force exerting in the immersing format is related to the simultaneous actions of four forces to a structure of smooth element coming to assemble. In addition to the acquired orientation of an electron and the position of its atom at solution surface, a manner of energy knot clamping to electron in an atom also varies exertion of force for it. Particles of geometrical shapes show different structures in 1D and MD shapes. On identifying structure, a mechanism of photon reversion is disclosed. In the selected area patterns of particles, printing spots of reverted force in photons reflected from the laterally orientated electrons of less and more elongated atoms validates that photons are not carried by the electrons, so it is a photon reflection instead of an electron diffraction.


Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (NSC-102-2811-M-032-008)


Email Address of Submitting Author


COMSATS University Islamabad



ORCID For Submitting Author


Declaration of Conflict of Interest

no conflict of interest