Novel Protective Group Synthesis of Androgen Receptor Modulators with Steroidal and Nonsteroidal Scaffolds

Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are frequently used either clinically, by athletes, or for body shaping due to their muscle building and performance enhancing properties. AAS misuse is associated with cardiovascular diseases, mood changes and endocrine issues. Despite the recognition of the severe adverse effects of AAS misuse, the underlying molecular mechanisms are insufficiently understood. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are supposed to diminish the adverse androgenic AAS effects while maximizing anabolic effects. In order to obtain androgen receptor modulating compounds of high purity for mechanistic in vitro investigations, this study summarizes protocols of optimized chemical synthesis for five AAS and two SARMs.