These are preliminary reports that have not been peer-reviewed. They should not be regarded as conclusive, guide clinical practice/health-related behavior, or be reported in news media as established information. For more information, please see our FAQs.
2 files

Mesoscopic gelation of chitosan and genipin at below critical concentrations

submitted on 24.10.2017, 11:55 and posted on 25.10.2017, 16:52 by Christoph Engwer, Ronja Loy, Ioannis S. Chronakis, Ana C. Mendes, Francisco M. Goycoolea
Genipin is increasingly used as a crosslinking agent for chitosans due to its low cytotoxicity as a naturally occurring extract of the plant Gardenia jasminoides. Genipin reacts with the primary amino groups of chitosan to form blue hydrogels. We studied the gelation kinetics of different chitosans varying in their properties (molar mass 34 000-213 000 g mol-1, degree of acetylation 9-20%) and genipin in detail. We found that critical sol-gel transition times obtained from dynamic light scattering were in good agreement with the results obtained by small deformation oscillatory rheometry and microviscosimetry at high concentrations of chitosan. However, at below critical concentrations, we found a second regime of gelation that followed the same Ross-Murphy's gelation kinetics. The macroscopic appearance of these samples was a suspension of weak gel-like particles that were sensitive to mechanical forces. We believe that the material is a mesoscopic gel, as described for other polymers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that this phenomenon has been described for the gelling system of chitosan and genipin.


The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement n° 613931.



  • Aggregates and assemblies
  • Biological Materials
  • Elastic Materials
  • Polyelectrolytes

Email Address of Submitting Author


University of Münster



ORCID For Submitting Author


Declaration of Conflict of Interest

No conflict of interest