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Iron Detection and Remediation with a Functionalized Porous Polymer Applied to Environmental Water Samples

preprint
submitted on 18.04.2019 and posted on 19.04.2019 by Sumin Lee, Adam Uliana, Mercedes Taylor, Khetpakorn Chakarawet, Siva Bandaru, Sheraz Gul, Jun Xu, Cheri Ackerman, Ruchira Chatterjee, Hiroyasu Furukawa, Jeffrey A. Reimer, Junko Yano, Ashok Gadgil, Gary Long, Fernande Grandjean, Jeffrey R. Long, Christopher Chang

Iron is one of the most abundant elements in the environment and in the human body. As an essential nutrient, iron homeostasis is tightly regulated, and iron dysregulation is implicated in numerous pathologies, including neuro-degenerative diseases, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Endogenous iron pool concentrations are directly linked to iron ion uptake from environmental sources such as drinking water, providing motivation for developing new technologies for assessing iron(II) and iron(III) levels in water. However, conventional methods for measuring aqueous iron pools remain laborious and costly and often require sophisticated equipment and/or additional processing steps to remove the iron ions from the original environmental source. We now report a simplified and accurate chemical platform for capturing and quantifying the iron present in aqueous samples through use of a post-synthetically modified porous aromatic framework (PAF). The ether/thioether-functionalized network polymer, PAF-1-ET, exhibits high selectivity for the uptake of iron(II) and iron(III) over other physiologically and environmentally relevant metal ions. Mössbauer spectroscopy, XANES, and EXAFS measurements provide evidence to support iron(III) coordination to oxygen-based ligands within the material. The polymer is further successfully employed to adsorb and remove iron ions from groundwater, including field sources in West Bengal, India. Combined with an 8-hydroxyquinoline colorimetric indicator, PAF-1-ET enables the simple and direct determination of the iron(II) and iron(III) ion concentrations in these samples, providing a starting point for the design and use of molecularly-functionalized porous materials for potential dual detection and remediation applications.

Funding

GM79465

Center for Gas Separations

Basic Energy Sciences

Find out more...

DE-AC02-05CH11231

History

Email Address of Submitting Author

sumin425@stanford.edu

Institution

University of California, Berkeley

Country

United States

ORCID For Submitting Author

0000-0003-4179-7952

Declaration of Conflict of Interest

no conflict of interest

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