Interstitial vs. Substitutional Metal Insertion in V2O5 as Post-Lithium Ion Battery Cathode: A Comparative GGA/GGA+U Study with Localized Bases
The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) often fails to correctly describe the electronic structure and thermochemistry of transition metal oxides and is commonly improved using an inexpensive correction term with a scaling parameter U. We tune U to reproduce experimental vanadium oxide redox energetics with a localized basis and a GGA functional. We find the value for U to be significantly lower than what is generally reported with plane-wave bases, with the uncorrected GGA results being in reasonable agreement with experiments. We use this computational setup to calculate interstitial and substitutional insertion energies of main group metals in vanadium pentoxide and find interstitial doping to be thermodynamically favored.