Influence of VC and FEC Additives on Interphase Properties of Carbon in Li-Ion Cells Investigated by Combined EIS & EQCM-D

The electrolyte additives vinylene carbonate (VC) and fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) are well known for increasing the lifetime of a Li-ion battery cell by supporting the formation of an effective solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) at the anode. In this study combined simultaneous electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and operando electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (EQCM-D) are employed together with in situ gas analysis (OEMS) to study the influence of VC and FEC on the passivation process and the interphase properties at carbon-based anodes. In small quantities both additives reduce the initial interphase mass loading by 30 to 50 %, but only VC also effectively prevents continuous side reactions and improves anode passivation significantly. VC and FEC are both reduced at potentials above 1 V vs. Li+/Li in the first cycle and change the SEI composition which causes an increase of the SEI shear storage modulus by over one order of magnitude in both cases. As a consequence, the ion diffusion coefficient and conductivity in the interphase is also significantly affected. While small quantities of VC in the initial electrolyte increase the SEI conductivity, FEC decomposition products hinder charge transport through the SEI and thus increase overall anode impedance significantly.