Influence of Crystalline and Shape Anisotropy on Electrochromic Modulation in Doped Semiconductor Nanocrystals
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) modulation appearing in the near-infrared range in doped semiconductor nanocrystals enriches electrochromic performance. Although crystalline and shape anisotropies influence LSPR spectra, study of their impact on electrochromic modulation are lacking. Here, we study how crystalline anisotropy in hexagonal cesium-doped tungsten oxide nanorods and nanoplatelets affects essential metrics of electrochromic modulation—coloration efficiency (CE) and volumetric capacity—using different sizes of electrolyte cations (tetrabutylammonium, sodium, and lithium) as structurally sensitive electrochemical probes. Nanorod films show higher CE than nanoplatelets in all of electrolytes owing to low effective mass along the crystalline c-axis. When using sodium cations, which diffuse through one-dimensional hexagonal tunnels, electrochemical capacity is significantly greater for platelets than for nanorods. This difference is explained by the hexagonal tunnel sites being more accessible in platelets than in nanorods. Our work sheds light on the role of shape and crystalline anisotropy on charge capacity and CE both of which contribute to overall modulation.