Energy Level Engineering of Charge Selective Contact and Halide Perovskite by Modulating Band Offset: Mechanistic Insights

Mixed cation and anion based perovskites solar cells (FAPbI3)0.85(MAPbBr3)0.15 gave enhanced stability under outdoor conditions, however, it yielded limited power conversion efficiency when SnO2 and Spiro-OMeTAD were employed as electron and hole transport layer (ETL/HTL). The inevitable interfacial recombination of charge carriers at ETL/perovskite and perovskite/HTL interface diminished the efficiency in planar (n-i-p) perovskite solar cells. Employing computational approach for uni-dimensional device simulator, the effect of band offset on charge recombination at both interfaces were investigated. We noted that it acquired cliff structure when the conduction band minimum of the ETL is lower than that of the perovskite, and thus maximizes interfacial recombination. However, if the conduction band minimum of ETL is higher than perovskite, i.e. spike structure is formed, which improve the performance of solar cell up to an optimum value of conduction band offset allowing to reach performance of 25.21%, with an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 1231 mV, a current density Jsc of 24.57 mA/cm2 and a fill factor of 83.28%. Additionally, we found that beyond the optimum offset value, large spike structure could decrease the performance. With an optimized, energy level of Spiro-OMeTAD and the thickness of mixed-perovskite layer performance of 26.56 % can be attained. Our results demonstrate a detailed understanding about the energy level tuning between the charge selective layers and perovskite and furthermore how the improvement in PV performance can be achieved by adjusting the energy level offset.