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Petterson_AcidBase_ChemRxiv.pdf (1.07 MB)

Eliciting Student Thinking About Acid-Base Reactions via App and Paper-Pencil Based Problem Solving

submitted on 12.11.2019, 22:30 and posted on 25.11.2019, 12:01 by Michael N. Petterson, Field M. Watts, Emma P. Snyder-White, Sabrina R. Archer, Ginger V. Shultz, Solaire Finkenstaedt-Quinn
Research has demonstrated that students often struggle with learning acid-base reaction mechanisms in organic chemistry. One response is the development of educational applications to support instruction and learning. However, research is needed to characterize how the modality influences students’ thinking about acid-base reaction mechanisms. This study used think-aloud interviews conducted with undergraduate students in their first semester of organic chemistry to understand how they worked through acid-base reactions using either paper-pencil or an app. Analysis of the interviews indicates that students recognize the steps of acid-base reactions, but do not always apply the underlying concepts when determining how a reaction will proceed. The modality somewhat influenced students’ thinking, in that the app prevented students from making chemically unreasonable mistakes. However, some students relied on the cues it provided, which could potentially be problematic when they are required to respond to assessments that do not provide these cues. Our results suggest that instructors should emphasize the conceptual grounding for the rules and steps that govern acid-base reactions to promote chemical thinking about the relationships between the reaction components and how those influence reaction outcomes, as well as support students to think critically about the chemical information contained within the modalities they are using.


National Science Foundation Small Business Innovation Research program, #1659983

Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC), #AWD006745

National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program, #DGE1256260


Email Address of Submitting Author


University of Michigan


United States

ORCID For Submitting Author


Declaration of Conflict of Interest

This research was funded in part from Alchemie, the company that created the Mechanisms app.


Read the published paper

in Chemistry Education Research and Practice