These are preliminary reports that have not been peer-reviewed. They should not be regarded as conclusive, guide clinical practice/health-related behavior, or be reported in news media as established information. For more information, please see our FAQs.
Electrodeposition of STMO for Archives1.pdf (8.52 MB)

Electrodeposition of Atmosphere-Sensitive Ternary Sodium Transition Metal Oxide Films for Sodium-Based Electrochemical Energy Storage

submitted on 10.04.2021, 13:07 and posted on 12.04.2021, 13:09 by Arghya Patra, Jerome Davis III, Saran Pidaparthy, Manohar H. Karigerasi, Beniamin Zahiri, Ashish A. Kulkarni, Michael A. Caple, Daniel P. Shoemaker, Jian-min Zuo, Paul V. Braun

Layered sodium transition metal oxides constitute an important class of materials with applications including electrochemical energy storage, high temperature superconductivity and electrocatalysis. However, electrodeposition of these compounds, an approach commonly used to grow other oxides, has been elusive due to their atmosphere instability and intrinsic incompatibility with aqueous electrolytes. Through use of a dry molten sodium hydroxide electrolyte, we demonstrate the high throughput electrodeposition of O3 (O’3) and P2 type layered sodium transition metal oxides across multiple transition metal chemistries, and apply these electrodeposits as high areal capacity cathodes in sodium-ion batteries. The electrodeposits are microns thick, polycrystalline, and structurally similar to materials synthesized classically at high temperature. This work enables fabrication of a wide group of previously inaccessible alkali and alkaline earth ion intercalated, higher valent transition group oxides in important thick film form factors.


Office of Naval Research (ONR) through the Navy and Marine Corps Department of Defense University Research-to-Adoption (DURA) Initiative (N00014-18-S-F004) (electrode growth and characterization)

US Army CERL W9132T-19-2-0008 (electrode testing)

National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center for Power Optimization of Electro Thermal Systems (POETS) (with cooperative Agreement No. EEC-1449548 (cell assembly)


Email Address of Submitting Author


University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois


United States

ORCID For Submitting Author


Declaration of Conflict of Interest