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Electrochemically Driven, Ni-Catalyzed Aryl Amination: Scope, Mechanism, and Applications

preprint
submitted on 26.02.2019 and posted on 28.02.2019 by Yu Kawamata, Julien Vantourout, David P. Hickey, Peng Bai, Longrui Chen, Qinglong Hou, Wenhua Qiao, Koushik Barman, Martin A. Edwards, Alberto F. Garrido-Castro, Justine N. deGruyter, Hugh Nakamura, Kyle W. Knouse, Chuanguang Qin, Khalyd J. Clay, Denghui Bao, Chao Li, Jeremy T. Starr, Carmen N. Garcia-Irizarry, Neal Sach, Henry S. White, Matthew Neurock, Shelley D. Minteer, Phil Baran

C–N cross-coupling is one of the most valuable and widespread transformations in organic synthesis. Largely dominated by Pd- and Cu-based catalytic systems, it has proven to be a staple transformation for those in both academia and industry. The current study presents the development and mechanistic understanding of an electrochemically driven, Ni-catalyzed method for achieving this reaction of high strategic importance. Through a series of electrochemical, computational, kinetic, and empirical experiments the key mechanistic features of this reaction have been unraveled, leading to a second generation set of conditions that is applicable to a broad range of aryl halides and amine nucleophiles, including complex examples on oligopeptides, medicinally-relevant heterocycles, natural products, and sugars. Full disclosure of the current limitations as well as procedures for both batch and flow scale-ups (100 gram) are also described.

Funding

NIH (GM-118176)

History

Email Address of Submitting Author

pbaran@scripps.edu

Institution

The Scripps Research Institute

Country

USA

ORCID For Submitting Author

0000-0001-9193-9053

Declaration of Conflict of Interest

no conflict

Exports