Effect of Curvature and Placement of Donor and Acceptor Units in Cycloparaphenylenes: A Computational Study

Cycloparaphenylenes have promise as novel fluorescent materials. However, shifting their fluorescence beyond 510 nm is difficult. Herein, we computationally explore the effect on CPP photophysical properties of incorporating electron accepting and electron donating units at the CAM-B3LYP/6-311G** level. We demonstrate that incorporation of donor and acceptor units may shift the CPP fluorescence as far as 1193 nm. This computational work directs the synthesis of bright red-emitting CPPs. Furthermore, the nanohoop architecture allows for interrogation of strain effects on common conjugated polymer donor and acceptor units. Strain results in a bathochromic shift versus linear variants, demonstrating the value of using strain to push the limits of low band gap materials.