Cross-coupling Reactions of Monosubstituted Tetrazines
A fast and mild method for the Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of monosubstituted 3-bromo-1,2,4,5-tetrazine is presented. Investigation of silver-based additives revealed that Ag2CO3 is the optimal mediator, enabling the process without the need for strong bases or high temperatures. Electronic modification of the classical 1,1′- bis(diphenylphosphine)ferrocene (dppf) ligand proved to be a powerful strategy in tailoring the catalytic system to the requirements set by the process. Under the optimized conditions a scope comprising a variety of alkyl-, heteroatom-, and halide substituted aryl- and heteroaryl-tetrazines were prepared in good to excellent yields (29 examples, up to 87% yield). This method constitutes the first example of a direct cross-coupling reaction of monosubstituted tetrazines.