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Controlling Pd Morphology in Electrodeposition from Nanoparticles to Dendrites via the use of Mixed Solvents

preprint
submitted on 29.07.2020 and posted on 29.07.2020 by Haytham Hussein, Houari Amari, Ben Breeze, Richard Beanland, Julie Macpherson

By changing the mole fraction of water (cwater) in the solvent acetonitrile (MeCN), we report a simple procedure to control nanostructure morphology during electrodeposition. We focus on the electrodeposition of palladium (Pd) on electron beam transparent boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. Three solutions are employed MeCN rich (90% v/v MeCN, cwater = 0.246), equal volumes (50% v/v MeCN, cwater = 0.743) and water rich (10% v/v MeCN, cwater = 0.963) with electrodeposition carried out under diffusion-controlled conditions for fixed time periods (50, 150 and 300 s). Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) reveals that in MeCN rich solution, Pd atoms, amorphous atom clusters and (majority) nanoparticles (NPs) result. As water content is increased, NPs are again evident but also elongated and defected nanostructures which grow in prominence with time. In the water rich environment, NPs and branched, concave and star-like Pd nanostructures are now seen, which with time translate to aggregated porous structures and ultimately dendrites. We attribute these observations to the role MeCN adsorption on Pd surfaces plays in retarding metal nucleation and growth.

Funding

ADEPT - Advanced Devices by ElectroPlaTing

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council

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History

Email Address of Submitting Author

j.macpherson@warwick.ac.uk

Institution

University Of Warwick

Country

United Kingdom

ORCID For Submitting Author

0000-0002-4249-8383

Declaration of Conflict of Interest

No conflict of interest

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