These are preliminary reports that have not been peer-reviewed. They should not be regarded as conclusive, guide clinical practice/health-related behavior, or be reported in news media as established information. For more information, please see our FAQs.
N-rGO paper_v9_JPCLett_final_figuremod.pdf (918.52 kB)

Characterizing Nitrogen Sites in Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide: A Combined Solid-State 15N NMR, XPS and DFT Approach

submitted on 14.01.2021, 01:39 and posted on 18.01.2021, 06:22 by Gunwoo Kim, Jeongjae Lee, Tao Liu, Clare P. Grey

Despite the potential applications in energy storage and conversion systems such as Li-oxygen batteries and fuel cells, the nature and distribution of doped nitrogen sites in reduced graphene oxides are still not well understood. In this work, we report a combined approach of 15N solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy alongside the predominantly used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to characterize the nitrogen environments in reduced graphene oxides. Application of 1H-15N low-power double quantum cross polarization under fast magic angle spinning with Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill scheme shows selective detection of protonated sites with low-power radiofrequency irradiation. NMR shift calculations of a series of N-containing molecules and a graphene nanoflake model were performed to help interpret the experimental data. This work demonstrates a powerful approach to identify and quantify the different nitrogen environments in doped graphene materials and can also be widely applied to similar graphitic carbon-based materials with other dopants.


EUHorizon 2020 GrapheneCore1-No.696656

Darwin College



Email Address of Submitting Author


University of Cambridge


United Kingdom

ORCID For Submitting Author


Declaration of Conflict of Interest