Biomimetic Extracellular Vesicles Embedded with Black Phosphorus for Molecular Recognition-Guided Biomineralization

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are involved in the regulation of cell physiological activity and the reconstruction of extracellular environment. Matrix vesicles (MVs) are a type of EVs, and they participate in the regulation of cell mineralization. Herein, bioinspired MVs embedded with black phosphorus are functionalized with cell-specific aptamer (denoted as Apt-bioinspired MVs) for stimulating biomineralization. The aptamer can direct bioinspired MVs to targeted cells, and the increasing concentration of inorganic phosphate originated from the black phosphorus can facilitate cell biomineralization. The photothermal effect of the Apt-bioinspired MVs also positively affects mineralization. In addition, the Apt-bioinspired MVs display outstanding bone regeneration performance. Considering the excellent behavior of the Apt-bioinspired MVs for promoting biomineralization, our strategy provides a way of designing bionic tools for studying the mechanisms of biological processes and advancing the development of medical engineering.