These are preliminary reports that have not been peer-reviewed. They should not be regarded as conclusive, guide clinical practice/health-related behavior, or be reported in news media as established information. For more information, please see our FAQs.
qm_region.pdf (2.9 MB)

BAR-based Multi-dimensional Nonequilibrium Pulling for Indirect Construction of QM/MM Free Energy Landscapes: Varying the QM Region

revised on 30.03.2021, 06:46 and posted on 30.03.2021, 09:08 by Zhaoxi Sun, Zhirong Liu

The indirect construction of the free energy landscape at Quantum mechanics (QM)/ molecular mechanics (MM) levels provides a feasible alternative to the direct QM/MM free energy simulations. The main idea under the indirect method is constructing a thermodynamic cycle, exploring the configurational space at a computationally efficient but less accurate low-level Hamiltonian, and performing an alchemical correction to obtain the thermodynamics at an accurate but computationally demanding high-level Hamiltonian. In our previous works, we developed a multi-dimensional nonequilibrium free energy simulation framework to obtain QM/MM free energy landscapes indirectly. Specifically, we considered obtaining semi-empirical QM (SQM) results by combining the MM results and the MM-to-SQM correction and obtaining the QM results by combining the SQM results and the SQM-to-QM correction. In this work, we explore the possibility of changing the region for electronic structure calculations in the multi-scale QM/MM treatment, which could also be considered as a change of the level of theory. More generally, the multi-dimensional nonequilibrium Hamiltonian-variation/perturbation framework could be used to obtain transformations between different Hamiltonians of interest, such as changing the QM theory, the size of the QM region, and the basis set simultaneously.


Email Address of Submitting Author


Peking University



ORCID For Submitting Author


Declaration of Conflict of Interest