Atomic Layer Deposition of LiF and Lithium Ion Conducting (AlF3)(LiF)x Alloys Using Trimethylaluminum, Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide and Hydrogen Fluoride

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of LiF and lithium ion conducting (AlF3)(LiF)x alloys was developed using trimethylaluminum, lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS) and hydrogen fluoride derived from HF-pyridine solution. ALD of LiF was studied using in situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and in situ quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) at reaction temperatures between 125°C and 250°C. A mass gain per cycle of 12 ng/(cm2 cycle) was obtained from QCM measurements at 150°C and decreased at higher temperatures. QMS detected FSi(CH3)3 as a reaction byproduct instead of HMDS at 150°C. LiF ALD showed self-limiting behavior. Ex situ measurements using X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) showed a growth rate of 0.5-0.6 Å/cycle, in good agreement with the in situ QCM measurements.
ALD of lithium ion conducting (AlF3)(LiF)x alloys was also demonstrated using in situ QCM and in situ QMS at reaction temperatures at 150°C A mass gain per sequence of 22 ng/(cm2 cycle) was obtained from QCM measurements at 150°C. Ex situ measurements using XRR and SE showed a linear growth rate of 0.9 Å/sequence, in good agreement with the in situ QCM measurements. Stoichiometry between AlF3 and LiF by QCM experiment was calculated to 1:2.8. XPS showed LiF film consist of lithium and fluorine. XPS also showed (AlF3)(LiF)x alloy consists of aluminum, lithium and fluorine. Carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen impurities were both below the detection limit of XPS. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) observed that LiF and (AlF3)(LiF)x alloy film have crystalline structures. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ionic chromatography revealed atomic ratio of Li:F=1:1.1 and Al:Li:F=1:2.7: 5.4 for (AlF3)(LiF)x alloy film. These atomic ratios were consistent with the calculation from QCM experiments. Finally, lithium ion conductivity (AlF3)(LiF)x alloy film was measured as σ = 7.5 × 10-6 S/cm.