Anion Distribution, Structural Distortion, and Symmetry-Driven Optical Band Gap Bowing of Mixed Halide Cs2SnX6 Vacancy Ordered Double Perovskites

Mixed anion compounds in the Fm-3m vacancy ordered perovskite structure were synthesised and characterised experimentally and computationally with a focus on compounds where A = Cs+. Pure anion Cs2SnX6 compounds were formed with X = Cl, Br and I using a room temperature solution phase method. Mixed anion compounds were formed as solid solutions of Cs2SnCl6 and Cs2SnBr6 and a second series from Cs2SnBr6 and Cs2SnI6. Single phase structures formed across the entirety of both composition series, with no evidence of long range anion ordering observed by diffraction. A distortion of the cubic A2BX6 structure was identified in which the spacing of the BX6 octahedra changes to accommodate the A site cation without reduction of overall symmetry. Optical band gap values varied with anion composition between 4.89 eV in Cs2SnCl6 to 1.35 eV in Cs2SnI6, but proved highly non-linear with changes in composition. In mixed halide compounds it was found that lower energy optical transitions appeared that were not present in the pure halide compounds, and this could be attributed to lowering of the local symmetry within the tin halide octahedra. The electronic structure was characterised by photoemission spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy revealed vibrational modes in the mixed halide compounds that could be assigned to particular mixed halide octahedra. This analysis was used to determine the distribution of octahedra types in mixed anion compounds, which was found to be consistent with a near-random distribution of halide anions throughout the structure, although some deviations from random halide distribution were noted in mixed iodide-bromide compounds, where the larger iodide anions preferentially adopted trans configurations.