An Activity-Based Fluorescent Sensor for the Detection of the Phenol Sulfotransferase SULT1A1 in Living Cells
The biological activation and incorporation of inorganic sulfate proceeds via a process known as sulfurylation. Transfer of a sulfuryl moiety from the activated sulfate donor, 3’-phosphoadenosine-5’-phosphosulfate (PAPS), to hydroxy-containing substrates by human phenol sulfotransferases (SULT1 family) alters substrate solubility and charge to affect the metabolism of endogenous metabolites, xenobiotics, and drugs. Current methods to monitor SULT1 activity in living cells primarily rely on radiolabeling and/or cell extractions, but these methods do not provide a direct readout of enzyme activity with a dynamic, temporally resolved spatial map in live, intact cells. To fill this gap, here, we present the development, computational modeling, in vitro enzymology, and biological application of Sulfotransferase Sensor-3, STS-3, an activity-based fluorescent sensor for SULT1A1, the most widely expressed and promiscuous SULT1 isoform.