These are preliminary reports that have not been peer-reviewed. They should not be regarded as conclusive, guide clinical practice/health-related behavior, or be reported in news media as established information. For more information, please see our FAQs.
Alkyl vs Aryl Modifications: A Comparative Study on Modular Modifications of Triphenylphosphonium Mitochondrial Vectors
preprintsubmitted on 19.04.2021, 07:28 and posted on 19.04.2021, 12:53 by How Chee Ong, João T.S. Coimbra, Maria João Ramos, Bengang Xing, Pedro Alexandrino Fernandes, Felipe Garcia
Triphenylphosphonium (TPP+) moieties are commonly conjugated to drug molecules to confer mitochondrial selectivity due to their positive charge and high lipophilicity. Although optimisation of lipophilicity can be achieved by modifying the length of the alkyl linkers between the TPP+ moiety and the drug molecule, it is not always possible. While methylation of the TPP+ moiety is a viable alternative to increase lipophilicity and mitochondrial accumulation, there are no studies comparing these two separate modular approaches. Thus, we have systematically designed, synthesised and tested a range of TPP+ molecules with varying alkyl chain lengths and degree of aryl methylation to compare the two modular methodologies for modulating lipophilicity. The ability of aryl/alkyl modified TPP+ to deliver cargo to the mitochondria was also evaluated by confocal imaging with a TPP+-conjugated fluorescein-based fluorophore. Furthermore, we have employed molecular dynamics simulations to understand the translocation of these molecules through biological membrane model systems. These results provides further insights into the thermodynamics of this process and the effect of alkyl and aryl modular modifications