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A Red Phosphorus-Graphite Anode for K-ion Batteries

submitted on 23.01.2021, 15:34 and posted on 25.01.2021, 13:26 by Isaac Capone, Jack Aspinall, Hyeon Jeong Lee, Albert Xiao, Johannes Ihli, Mauro Pasta

Red phosphorus (RP) is a promising anode material for potassium-ion batteries because of its theoretical capacity of 865mAhg–1 delivered at an average potential of 0.5V vs K+/K. However, its alloy reaction

to form KP entails a volume expansion of 162% resulting in severe stresses that lead to SEI and electrode fracture, loss of electric contact, and ultimately reduced cycle life. Moreover, its low electronic conductivity (10-14 Scm–1) limits rate capability. Here, we report a RP-graphite composite prepared by a two step ball milling procedure to control particle size and optimize carbon coating. Electrodes prepared with the composites achieve high capacity (723mAhg–1) at C/20 and retaining 75% at 5C. It also shows very good cycling stability, retaining more than 96% of the capacity after 100 cycles at 1C.


Sir Henry Royce Institute - Oxford Equipment

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council

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ISCF Faraday Challenge project SOLBAT [grant number FIRG007]


Email Address of Submitting Author


University of Oxford


United Kingdom

ORCID For Submitting Author


Declaration of Conflict of Interest


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