A Physical Data Fusion Approach to Optimize Compositional Stability of Halide Perovskites
Compositional search within multinary perovskites employing brute force synthesis are prohibitively expensive in large chemical spaces. To identify the most stable multi-cation lead iodide perovskites containing Cs, formamidinium (FA) and methylammonium (MA), we fuse results from density functional theory (DFT) calculations and in situ thin-film degradation test within an end-to-end machine learning (ML) algorithm to inform the compositional optimization of CsxMAyFA1-x-yPbI3. We integrate phase thermodynamics modelling as a probabilistic constraint in a Bayesian optimization (BO) loop, which effectively guides the experimental search while considering both structural and environmental stability. After three optimization rounds and only sampling 1.8% of the compositional space, we identify thin-film compositions centred at Cs0.17MA0.03FA0.80PbI3 that achieve a 3x delay in macroscopic degradation onset under elevated temperature, humidity, and light compared with the more complex state-of-the-art Cs0.05(MA0.17FA0.83)0.95Pb(I0.83Br0.17)3. We find up to 8% of MA can be incorporated into the perovskite structure before stability is significantly compromised. Cs is beneficial at low concentrations, however, beyond 17% is found to contribute to reduced stability. Synchrotron-based grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) further validates that the interplay of chemical decomposition and phase separation governs the non-linear instability landscape of this compositional space. We reveal the detrimental role of the ẟ-CsPbI3 minority phase in accelerating degradation and it can be kinetically suppressed by co-optimising Cs and MA content, providing insights into simplifying perovskite compositions for further environmental stability enhancement. Our approach realizes the effectiveness of ML-enabled data fusion in achieving a holistic, efficient, and physics-informed experimentation for multinary systems, potentially generalisable to materials search in the vast structural and alloyed spaces beyond halide perovskites.