Transition Energy, Orientation Force and Work Done in Transitional Behavior Atoms; Formulating New Principles in Thermodynamics

2020-01-09T12:16:36Z (GMT) by Mubarak Ali

Study of different parameters in thermodynamics is important for sustainable science behind physical and chemical phenomena. This study finds anomaly associated with the first law of thermodynamics. The anomaly is resolved for the equations of change in internal energy of a system composed of atoms. A gas atom involves transition energy gained to undertake transition state. Hence, work done is carried out by that gas atom. Symbolically, this can be registered in plus form. However, a solid atom involves transition energy absorbed to undertake transition state. Hence, work done is carried out on that solid atom, which can be registered in minus form. At typical level ground surface, atoms give birth to condensed matter physics, so atoms of solid behaviors should also give birth to transition matter physics. In a system composed of gas or solid atoms, varying energy and force introduce different transition states. Orientation force of an electron either in transition of gas atom or in transition of solid atom is by varying potential energy under transition energy. So, understandable concepts of cooling and heating are deduced from respective gas atoms and solid atoms when recovering from their liquid states.