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Transition Energy, Orientation Force and Work Done in Transitional Behavior Atoms: Formulating New Principles in Thermodynamics

revised on 05.07.2020 and posted on 06.07.2020 by Mubarak Ali
A study of different parameters in thermodynamics is important to describe the science of various physical and chemical phenomena. Solid atoms give birth to condensed matter science when dealing with different transition states at suitable level (of ground surface). A same is the case in atoms of gaseous state but in a different way. In this context, study finds an anomaly associated with the first law of thermodynamics. The anomaly is resolved for the equations of change in the internal energy of a system composed of atoms. To undertake transition state, a gaseous atom involves transitional energy in a gaining manner. Hence, the work is carried out by that gaseous atom. This can be registered symbolically in a plus form. A solid atom involves transitional energy absorbed in undertaking transition state. Hence, the work is carried out on that solid atom, which can be registered in a minus form. In a system composed of gaseous or solid atoms, varying energy and force introduce different transition states. A levitational force exerts at electron level in an atom of gaseous state, whereas a gravitational force exerts at electron level in an atom of solid state. An electron changes potential energy as per the available transition energy for its atom, thereby it controls position by the introduced orientation force while remaining clamped in energy knot. Based on the orientations of electrons, understandable concepts of cooling and heating are deduced from their respective gaseous atoms and solid atoms when recovering from achieved ‘attaining liquid states’.


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COMSATS University Islamabad



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