Thermodynamic Driving Forces and Chemical Reaction Fluxes; Reflections on the Steady State

2019-06-03T16:12:18Z (GMT) by Miloslav Pekař
Molar balances of continuous and batch reacting systems with a simple reaction are analyzed from the point of view of finding relationships between the thermodynamic driving force and the chemical reaction rate. Special attention is focused on steady state, which has been the core subject of previous similar work. It is argued that such relationships should contain, besides the thermodynamic driving force, also a kinetic factor, and are of a specific form for a specific reacting system. More general analysis is provided by means of the non-equilibrium thermodynamics of linear fluid mixtures. Then, the driving force can be expressed either in Gibbs energy (affinity) form or on the basis of chemical potentials. The relationships can be generally interpreted in terms of force-resistance-flux.