Solvent- and catalyst-free aza-Michael addition of imidazoles and related heterocycles

This work demonstrates the scope and limitations of the aza-Michael addition of imidazoles and related heterocycles with electron deficient olefins under solvent- and catalyst-free conditions. The reaction proceeds at 80°C within hours towards completion as long as the azole derivative is sufficiently soluble in the Michael acceptor, which has been used in small excess. Workup only comprises evaporation of surplus Michael-acceptor and no additional solvents are necessary for purifying the products.