Microscopic Theory of Plasmons in Substrate-Supported Borophene

We compute the dielectric properties of freestanding and metal-supported borophene from first-principles time-dependent density functional theory. We find that both the low- and high-energy plasmons of borophene are fully quenched by the presence of a metallic substrate at borophene-metal distances smaller than $\simeq$ 9 \AA. Based on these findings, we derive an electrodynamic model of the interacting, momentum-dependent polarizability for a two-dimensional metal on a model metallic substrate, which quantitatively captures the evolution of the dielectric properties of borophene as a function of metal-borophene distance. Applying this model to a series of metallic substrates, we show that maximizing the plasmon energy detuning between borophene and substrate is the key material descriptor for plasmonic performance.