Influenza A M2 Spans the Membrane Bilayer, Perturbs its Organization and Differentiates the Effect of Amantadine and Spiro[pyrrolidine-2,2'-adamantane] AK13 on Lipids

The investigation and observations made for the M2TM, excess aminoadamantane ligands in DMPC were made using the simpler version of biophysical methods including SDC, SAXS and WAXS, MD simulations and ssNMR. 1H, 31P ssNMR and MD simulations, showed that M2TM in apo form or drug-bound form span the membrane interacting strongly with lipid acyl chain tails and the phosphate groups of the polar head surface. The MD simulations showed that the drugs anchor through their ammonium group with the lipid phosphate and occasionally with M2TM asparagine-44 carboxylate groups. The 13C ssNMR experiments allow the inspection of excess drug molecules and the assessment of its impact on the lipid head-group region. At low peptide concentrations of influenza A M2TM tetramer in DPMC bilayer, two lipid domains were observed that likely correspond to the M2TM boundary lipids and the bulk-like lipids. At high peptide concentrations, one domain was identified which constitute essentially all of the lipids which behave as boundary. This effect is likely due, according to the MD simulations, to the preference of AK13 to locate in closer vicinity to M2TM compared to Amt as well as the stronger ionic interactions of Amt primary ammonium group with phosphate groups, compared with the secondary buried ammonium group in AK13.