Calculation of Higher Protonation States and of a New Resting State for Vanadium Chloroperoxidase Using QM/MM, with an Atom-in-Molecules Analysis
ABSTRACT. Earlier QM/MM studies of the resting state of vanadium chloroperoxidase (VCPO) focused on the diprotonated states of the vanadate cofactor. Herein, we report a new extensive QM/MM study that includes the tri- and quadprotonated states of VCPO at neutral pH. We identify certain di- and triprotonated states as being candidates for the resting state based on a comparison of relative energies. The quadprotonated states as well as some of the triprotonated states are ruled out as the resting state. An Atoms-in-Molecules (AIM) analysis of the complex hydrogen bonding around the vanadate cofactor helps to explain the relative energies of the protonation states considered herein, and it also indicates new hydrogen bonding which has not been recognized previously. A Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) study is presented to give a better understanding of the electronic structure of the vanadate co-factor.