Ferromagnetic Resonance Biosensor for Homogeneous and Volumetric Detection of DNA

In this work, we demonstrate for the first time, a ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) based homogeneous and volumetric biosensor for magnetic label detection. Two different isothermal amplification methods, <i>i.e.</i>, rolling circle amplification (RCA) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) are adopted and combined with a standard electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer for FMR biosensing. For RCA-based FMR biosensor, binding of RCA products of a synthetic Vibrio cholerae target DNA sequence gives rise to the formation of aggregates of magnetic nanoparticles. Immobilization of nanoparticles within the aggregates leads to a decrease of the net anisotropy of the system and a concomitant increase of the resonance field. A limit of detection of 1 pM is obtained with an average coefficient of variation of 0.16%, which is superior to the performance of other reported RCA-based magnetic biosensors. For LAMP-based sensing, a synthetic Zika virus target oligonucleotide is amplified and detected in 20% serum samples. Immobilization of magnetic nanoparticles is induced by their co-precipitation with Mg<sub>2</sub>P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>7</sub> (a by-product of LAMP) and provides a detection sensitivity of 100 aM. The fast measurement, high sensitivity and miniaturization potential of the proposed FMR biosensing technology makes it a promising candidate for designing future point-of-care devices.<br>