Atomic Layer Deposition of LiF and Lithium Ion Conducting (AlF3)(LiF)x Alloys Using Trimethylaluminum, Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide and Hydrogen Fluoride

<div>Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of LiF and lithium ion conducting (AlF<sub>3</sub>)(LiF)<sub>x</sub> alloys was developed using trimethylaluminum, lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS) and hydrogen fluoride derived from HF-pyridine solution. ALD of LiF was studied using in situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and in situ quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) at reaction temperatures between 125°C and 250°C. A mass gain per cycle of 12 ng/(cm<sup>2</sup> cycle) was obtained from QCM measurements at 150°C and decreased at higher temperatures. QMS detected FSi(CH<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub> as a reaction byproduct instead of HMDS at 150°C. LiF ALD showed self-limiting behavior. Ex situ measurements using X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) showed a growth rate of 0.5-0.6 Å/cycle, in good agreement with the in situ QCM measurements.</div><div>ALD of lithium ion conducting (AlF3)(LiF)x alloys was also demonstrated using in situ QCM and in situ QMS at reaction temperatures at 150°C A mass gain per sequence of 22 ng/(cm<sup>2</sup> cycle) was obtained from QCM measurements at 150°C. Ex situ measurements using XRR and SE showed a linear growth rate of 0.9 Å/sequence, in good agreement with the in situ QCM measurements. Stoichiometry between AlF<sub>3</sub> and LiF by QCM experiment was calculated to 1:2.8. XPS showed LiF film consist of lithium and fluorine. XPS also showed (AlF<sub>3</sub>)(LiF)x alloy consists of aluminum, lithium and fluorine. Carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen impurities were both below the detection limit of XPS. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) observed that LiF and (AlF<sub>3</sub>)(LiF)<sub>x</sub> alloy film have crystalline structures. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ionic chromatography revealed atomic ratio of Li:F=1:1.1 and Al:Li:F=1:2.7: 5.4 for (AlF<sub>3</sub>)(LiF)<sub>x</sub> alloy film. These atomic ratios were consistent with the calculation from QCM experiments. Finally, lithium ion conductivity (AlF<sub>3</sub>)(LiF)<sub>x</sub> alloy film was measured as σ = 7.5 × 10<sup>-6</sup> S/cm.</div>