Active Learning Accelerates Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics on Pericyclic Reactive Energy Surfaces

Modeling dynamical effects in chemical reactions, such as post-transition state bifurcation, requires ab initio molecular dynamics simulations due to the breakdown of simpler static models like transition state theory. However, these simulations tend to be restricted to lower-accuracy electronic structure methods and scarce sampling because of their high computational cost. Here, we report the use of statistical learning to accelerate reactive molecular dynamics simulations by combining high-throughput ab initio calculations, graph-convolution interatomic potentials and active learning. This pipeline was demonstrated on an ambimodal trispericyclic reaction involving 8,8-dicyanoheptafulvene and 6,6-dimethylfulvene. With a dataset size of approximately
31,000 M062X/def2-SVP quantum mechanical calculations, the computational cost of exploring the reactive potential energy surface was reduced by an order of magnitude. Thousands of virtually costless picosecond-long reactive trajectories suggest that post-transition state bifurcation plays a minor role for the reaction in vacuum. Furthermore, a transfer-learning strategy effectively upgraded the potential energy surface to higher
levels of theory ((SMD-)M06-2X/def2-TZVPD in vacuum and three other solvents, as well as the more accurate DLPNO-DSD-PBEP86 D3BJ/def2-TZVPD) using about 10% additional calculations for each surface. Since the larger basis set and the dynamic correlation capture intramolecular non-covalent interactions more accurately, they uncover longer lifetimes for the charge-separated intermediate on the more accurate potential energy surfaces. The character of the intermediate switches from entropic to thermodynamic upon including implicit solvation effects, with lifetimes increasing with solvent polarity. Analysis of 2,000 reactive trajectories on the chloroform PES shows a qualitative agreement with the experimentally-reported periselectivity for this reaction. This overall approach is broadly applicable and opens a door to the study of dynamical effects in larger, previously-intractable reactive systems.