A Spatially Orthogonal Hierarchically Porous Acid-Base Catalyst for Cascade and Antagonistic Reactions
Complex organic molecules are of great importance to academic and industrial chemistry and typically synthesised from smaller building blocks by multistep reactions. The ability to perform multiple (distinct) transformations in a single reactor would greatly reduce the number of manipulations required for chemical manufacturing, and hence the development of multifunctional catalysts for such one-pot reactions is highly desirable. Here we report the synthesis of a novel hierarchically porous framework, in which the macropores are selectively functionalised with a SO4/ZrO2 solid acid coating, while the mesopores are selectively functionalised with MgO solid base nanoparticles. The spatially orthogonal distribution of acid and base catalytic sites permits the efficient two-step cascade deacetylation and Knoevenagel condensation of dimethyl acetals to cyanoates, and the simultaneous esterification and transesterification of a high free fatty acid content triglyceride.