A Graphenic and Potentiometric Sensor for Monitoring the Growth of Bacterial Biofilms

Biofilm development on surfaces represents one of the most challenging issues in the medical field. The irreversibility of this process, and the characteristics of the biofilm, make biofilm associated infections difficult to treat and prone to relapse. Thanks to the short response time, low- cost, easy fabrication and potential for miniaturization, electrochemical sensors are expected to play an important role in monitoring biofilm formation. Here, we describe the use of a potentiometric sensor based on functionalized reduced graphene oxide for monitoring the formation and growth of biofilms from three bacterial species (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) in liquid and semisolid culture media. The Open Circuit Potential (OCP) between an Ag/AgCl pseudo reference electrode and a working electrode, both screen-printed on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate film, was measured during the growth of bacteria. The OCP decreased over time as bacteria grew on the sensor surface exhibiting a negative correlation